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Turn us unto you, O LORD, and we shall be turned; renew our days as of old. Lamentations 5:21

Love seems to require a response. Jesus inquired of Peter: Do you love me? OK, then I have a task for you. Feed my lambs. In 1 Corinthians 13, the love chapter, there is more said about actions than feelings. Of course we are human. So we have both.

My dad seldom told me he loved me. But he was very affectionate and a great provider, father, and husband. I think many men in the WW2 era felt that if they had to tell you they loved you - they had somehow failed.

I remember him saying: It's not how high you jump but how you live when you hit the ground.

Having said this, we surely agree with this essay and we must avoid merely going through the motions of what we think a believer in Christ should look like.

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This is a insightful piece. We printed it and shared it yesterday. Thanks to Steve for writing it and Glen for posting it.

The Lord says, "My son, give me your heart". The natural man says, "Lord, here are my good works. Please accept them so that I can become your son and remain in your family."

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One thing is needful.  Luke 10:42

Devotion to Christ is the outmoded relic of yesteryear's religion. We are satisfied with this situation. Like the five thousand of old, if we may merely eat of His loaves, we are content. Indeed, receiving from His hand is our chief delight, but He is not.

Our belly has become our god. Success, prosperity, and fulfillment are the ignoble objects of our waning devotion. We will sacrifice, in measure, to obtain His benefits, using Christ Himself as the means to our own selfish ends.

It is imagined that He will help us perform our will: that He will hasten to fulfill our decrees. And when He has done His part, we toss Him aside, forgotten, as we bask in what we have used Him to obtain.

Formerly the church had sung, "Once earthly joy I craved, sought peace and rest; now Thee alone I seek, give what is best." Now it chants, "Abraham's blessings are mine."

We are no different than the church of Laodicea who thought themselves to be rich, increased in goods, with need of nothing. It sickens Christ still.

We struggle in order to gain for self. Answers are demanded while wisdom is despised. Solutions are eagerly sought but the Savior is not. Provision is pursued with no thought for treasure in heaven.

And if God can assist us in our quest, we are willing to use Him to get what we want. But the great men of both covenants were not so engaged.

Moses said to the Lord: “Let me know Your ways that I may know You” -Ex.33:13. Paul exclaimed: “That I may know Him” - Phil.3:10.

In fact, this is what eternal life is made of. It is the Lord Jesus Himself who said so. “This is eternal life, that they may know You, the only true God, and Jesus Christ whom You have sent” – Jn.17:3.

We gauge eternal life by our confession, He, by our communion. We are unlike our God. We neither know Him nor are particularly concerned to do so. Many other things occupy us.

A distraction is that which interferes with our concentration. Concentration is focused thought and attention. When distracted, the object of our devotion is set aside for that which is of lesser significance. Yet we are willing to entertain the interruptions that so readily clamor for our recognition.

Distractions may not be positively evil; they may in fact be good. Serving the Lord is nothing to be shunned. But Martha was “distracted with much service” -Lk.10:40.

Service to the Lord became an encumbrance. It diverted her heart from its true and worthy focus. Doing something for God replaced communion with Him. Martha was willing to tolerate distraction, Mary was not. Martha spoke, Mary listened.

The Marthas of the world wish their voice to prevail. They will presume to command the Lord and expect Him to comply. “She came up to Him and said, ‘Lord, do you not care that my sister has left me to serve alone? Then tell her to help me’" - Lk.10:40.

Martha imagines that her Lord is just like she is, but He is not. He is unknown by her. His heart remained veiled to her hurried footstep. “Worried and bothered about so many things” - Lk.10:41 was the true assessment of her service. Irritated insistence upon her own way testified to her lack of devotion to the Lord Jesus.

The coming day of Judgment will reveal many things done poorly. For some, it will show a few things done well. Fewer still will have a testimony of having done the one necessary thing in all of life.

“One thing is necessary” -Lk.10:42. Here is a definitive statement of what is essential. This must be done; all else is optional and, at best, secondary.

We do not live this way. Devotion to Christ is not the compelling passion of our souls, yet it is the only truly necessary thing. Nothing else truly matters.

But we have not opted for this. We have chosen the foolish part which shall be taken away from us. “Mary has chosen the good part, which shall not be taken away from her” -Lk.10:42.

It will abide with her throughout everlasting day. She will carry this into eternity. Devotion to Christ is the only portion that a mortal soul will not have taken from him when he leaves this earth.

It is eternal life. Knowing the only true God is necessary; nothing else in all of life falls into this category.

The categories are but two: necessary and unnecessary. Devotion to the Lord Jesus is all one will find in the first category. Everything else in life will be found in the second.

This is a shattering reality to any honest heart. To this busy and superficial generation, it will only significantly trouble them when standing naked before the God they have not known.

Devotion to the Lord Jesus cannot begin then. Eternal life, knowing God, can only have its origin here on earth. It is the exclusively necessary thing now in this life.

This is not religious fiction. Christ Jesus who spoke it knows whereof He speaks. The final verdict on all of life's activities is that one thing has been necessary all along.

You have been told. The Lord Jesus has said it Himself. Search through the vast array of activities, distractions, and delusions that comprise your life. What have you found there that qualifies as necessary?

All is vanity. If nothing essential and hence truly worthwhile is discovered, all is loss. The tragedy of an irrelevant and wasted existence will overwhelm you in a single horrifying instant. In a blinding flash of clarity you will realize that one thing had been necessary all along.

But retrospect will not save us then. Devotion to the Lord Jesus is a matter for the moment, and every moment thereafter, here upon earth.

Dear reader, you are worried and bothered about many things. They will be taken from you. They have no lasting value.

They can neither rescue you at the Judgment nor satisfy you in the present. One thing is necessary.

Disturbed as we may be by this, few of us will do anything about it. We may guiltily redouble our efforts to attend church, but we will not become devoted to Christ Himself. We may vow to pray more often, but this will soon fall by the wayside. We remain void of devotion to the Lord Jesus.

There are two main reasons for this. First, we do not believe that He is worthy. Second, we do not believe that we are as evil as we are. These are the roots of the matter.

The Lord Jesus sees us; He is watching. He knows not only what we do but why we do it. He gazes into our very hearts. “He sat down opposite the treasury, and began observing” -Mk.12:41.

All is open and laid bare before His all-searching eye. He saw their acts of devotion; He also saw what no one else did, He saw who was truly devoted.

“Many rich people were putting in large sums out of their abundance. A poor widow put in all she owned, all her living” - Mk.12:41-44. He knew the coins of each.

He knew what remained in the purse, and what didn't. The rich reserved portions for self, the widow abandoned all for the Lord.

How much is He worth? This is the fundamental question when assessing devotion. Of what value is the Lord Jesus to us?
The worthiness of the object dictates the terms of the investment. And money is surely not the point of the discussion, for the 

Lord Jesus said: “This poor widow put in more than all the contributors to the treasury” -Mk.12:43.
No calculator can quantify the devotion of a heart that is wholly abandoned unto Him. Nor can one count up the inestimable value of Christ Jesus the Lord, “precious in the sight of God” -1 Pet.2:4.

Grasping the immeasurable greatness of the Lord Jesus Christ will determine the greatness of our devotion. Without this, even thirty shekels of silver can be imagined to be a “magnificent price at which I was valued by them” -Zech.11:13.
The rich in the Temple fared better than this in their own estimation. Even so, combined, theirs could not equal two mites.

To the widow, the Lord was worth all. Her life was of no account in her mind. That she would entrust to Him who was worth all. He would attend to all her needs.

This is the secret and the mystery of devotion. The Lord is worth all. Nothing is to be withheld; nothing remains clutched to the bosom of self.

Who is the Lord Jesus Christ to you? Of what value is He? Is He worthy of a total and complete devotion in an abandonment of self?

You answer, "Yes"? Have you told Him so? Have you brought your two mites? Has everything passed from your hand into His? 

He is still sitting and observing. He is seated now in the true temple which the Lord built, and not man. He sees beyond the
surface, He sees your heart.

One thing is necessary. The Lord Jesus has a question for you:

“But who do you say that I am?” -Mt.16:15. You must answer this by your life, and not only with your lips.

Our devotion is sickly because our thoughts of the Lord are beggarly while our esteem for self is highly inflated.

We love little because we have been forgiven little. We are not that bad in our own estimation. We have some sins to be sure, but the extent is minimal we imagine. And so, we remain loveless and devotionless.

“Which of them will love him more? Simon answered and said, ‘I suppose the one whom he forgave more.’ And He said to him, ‘You have judged correctly. He who is forgiven little, loves little’” -Lk.7:42,43,47.

The estimation of our own guilt determines our response to the Lord Jesus. Simon was actually no better off than the harlot, except in his own deluded conceits.

It is not that one must wallow in horrible crimes in order to be devoted to the Lord Jesus. What is needed is a clear perception of the nature and reality of our own sinfulness.

The woman wept in acute bitterness over her wretchedness. The Pharisee reclined with Jesus thinking to himself that all was well with him.

She was painfully conscious of her condition; he remained in delusion and darkness. The woman judged herself, the Pharisee judged her and the Lord Jesus both, but not himself.

He imagined that he needed nothing. The truth is that he was a hypocritical son of **** [Mt.23:15]. Actually, he was a blind fool full of self-indulgence [Mt.23:17,25]. If he would see himself clearly he would know that he was a whitewashed tomb full of all uncleanness and soon to be damned [Mt.23:27,33].

But he did not think of himself in this manner. He therefore did not weep. He did not kiss the feet of the Lord Jesus. Neither was he forgiven; neither did he love.

He thought much of himself and little of the Lord. He was devoted to his religion and his place therein, but he was not devoted to God.

Tearless saints lack devotion to the Lord Jesus. When have you last wept over the abysmal blight of who you truly are in the corrupt depths of your inner self? Do you kiss His feet as the sinner you are, or recline at His head in self-generated acceptability?

You may not congratulate yourself that you are not like others. You are, and worse. Doubting this, you shall never be justified or cleansed from your desperate evil. Lk.18:9-14.

“The sacrifices of God are a broken spirit; a broken and contrite heart, O God, You will not despise” -Ps.51:17.
According to the dictionary, contrite means "broken down with sorrow for sin; humbly and thoroughly penitent." What does it mean to you?

Judas kissed the Lord, but not His feet. He felt remorse, but shed no tear. He had a form of godliness, but denied the power thereof. He had the appearance of a disciple, but was not. “Kiss the Son, lest He be angry, and you perish from the way” -Ps.2:12.

Tears and kisses are not optional. One abides a Simon, or worse yet, a Judas, in their absence. There is no forgiveness apart from them. You will love but little, if at all.

One thing is necessary. Devotion to Christ is not an added element to our existing religion; it is the one indispensable foundation for all that is built upon it. Lacking this, our religion is a vapor and delusion.

Those who venture all for the Lord Jesus will not be understood by the devotionless multitude: they will not be by fellow disciples either. The lack of practicality of such "extremism" will draw the disapproval of the unconsecrated. It always does.

“The disciples were indignant when they saw this, and said, ‘Why this waste? For this might have been sold for a high price and given to the poor’" -Mt.26:8,9.

They were very expedient, conservatively calculating. The sum of their calculations was that man takes precedence over God, that needs preempt worship, and that ministry eclipses communion.

“Jesus said, ‘Let her alone’” -Jn.12:7. There is something that transcends service and charity. It is the one necessary thing He prizes. “The Father seeks such to be His worshipers” -Jn.4:23. 

He is seeking not for better servants, but for worshipers, for lovers, for tear-stained cheeks, for lips pressed to nail-scarred feet, for costly vials emptied upon a thorn-crowned head.

He is seeking for those who will pour out every precious thing in their possession upon the Son of God: to do so because He is worthy due to the excellence of His glory.

This is the essence of gospel response. It is what the Lord has been seeking even from before time immemorial. “He chose us in Him before the foundation of the world, that we would be holy and blameless before Him in love” -Eph.1:4.

Holy, in love: isn't this what it means to know God? Is this not what eternal life is, and ever will be?

But those who are forgiven little love little. Those who withhold for self do not value Christ. Those who are occupied with activities do not chose the good part. And those who focus upon the ever-present poor will always ask: “Why this waste?”

Why, indeed? Because there is nothing better that one can do. There is nothing else that is truly required. Those who love little call it waste. He who loves His own to the uttermost calls it necessary.

“Wherever this gospel is preached in the whole world, what this woman has done will also be spoken of in memory of her” - Mt.26:13. What she did is what the gospel demands.

The conclusion of Paul's gospel is to “present your bodies a living and holy sacrifice” -Rm.12:1. This is what she did. All that she had, she gave. What it cost her was of no concern. What others thought did not turn her away; He was worthy. This is what filled her heart, which in turn filled the house with the “fragrance of Christ unto God” -2 Cor.2:15.

Kept to herself, the ointment did no good to any: neither to her, the poor, nor the Lord Jesus. Kept to yourself, of what benefit are you?

One may well ask of you, ''Why this waste?" Why are you wasting on Self that which ought to be entirely poured out upon the person of Christ? What is He worth to you?

Others have gone to great lengths for lesser gain. The queen of Sheba traversed from afar to hear, firsthand, the wisdom of Solomon. She saw him and spoke to him of all that was upon her heart.

She perceived the wisdom of his words and the splendor of his house. She sat at meat with him and tasted of his table. His servants were blessed and their amenities fine.

When she gazed upon his ascent to the house of God, “there was no more spirit in her” -1 Kings 10:5. She was overwhelmed. She confessed that she did not believe the word she had heard in her own land. She had thought less of Solomon than he was worthy of. When her eyes were opened, the realization rushed upon her that “the half was not told me” -1 Kings 10:7. So great was he, so magnificent, grand in wisdom, and glorious in riches; there was none his equal.

Her mouth could contain it no longer. Praise pealed from her lips. Riches poured from her hands. Spices: rare, fragrant, exhilarating aromas, wafted their delights throughout the house of Solomon. “Never again did such abundance of spices come in as that which the queen of Sheba gave to King Solomon” -1 Kings 10:10.

Solomon was glorified. He was delighted. And the queen was blessed from his abundance [1 Kings 10:13].

Dear reader, “behold, something greater than Solomon is here” -Mt.12:42. The Lord Jesus exceeds Solomon as the sun does a match, as the sea a dewdrop. He is greater and He is here.

You have heard of Him by the hearing of the ear. His Word has reached you in your land. But what of you; have you arisen to come to Him, to seek His face, to hear His wisdom?

When you see Him as He is, when you perceive the glories of His house and the blessedness of His servants, as you gaze into 

His face and feast at His table, and behold His ascent to His Father's house, there will remain in you no more spirit.

You will confess that you have not believed the Word you heard in your own land. You will realize that you have thought Him to be far less worthy than you had ever imagined. You will abhor yourself in dust and ashes.

Then your tongue will be loosed in praise and your hand will relax its grip on all you have clutched to your bosom. Gladly all will be given.

The insignificance, foolishness, and pride of your heart will be seen in the light of His glory. And you will bring forth spices uncountable. You will become devoted to the Lord Jesus.

You will have tasted of the one necessary thing. He will be glorified and pleased. You will be blessed from His bounty.

But you must arise and come. You will not be devoted to Him staying where you are. You must come to where your tears will cascade upon Him, where your lips will meet His feet.

He cannot be anointed from afar. His Word will not be heard amidst the bustle of your activities. You must come to His feet, both to hear and to weep. It is there that you shall discover the one necessary thing.

Some of you will come; some of you will not. It is because of this that I must tell you one other thing about the Queen of Sheba. “The Queen will rise up with this generation at the judgment and will condemn it, because she came from the ends of the earth to hear the wisdom of Solomon; and behold, something greater than Solomon is here” -Mt.12:42.

She was compelled by the greatness of that king of peace to seek him earnestly. At all costs and with glad sacrifice she came to see his face, hear his wisdom, and behold his glory. It was a great expenditure for a lesser reward.

She will condemn this generation. Her very life will bear solemn testimony to the wickedness of hearts in not arising and seeking the Lord Jesus Christ.

This queen will be there, as will you, at the Judgment. The King will ask you, "Do you see this woman who came from the ends of the earth? How far have you come in pursuit of the one necessary thing in life, devotion to My Son, the Lord Jesus Christ?"

Many will be speechless on that day, but not the Queen of the South. She will turn and ask, "Why this waste?"

One thing is necessary

   ~Steve Phillips

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      HI all, 

Young folks are not taught much history any more. Likewise, good literature is becoming more and more scarce unless you dig around for it. As far as I can tell, this poem has not been shared on the internet. 

That aside, many of the Lord's servants are becoming tired lately - even afraid. So, here are words to strengthen our feeble hands. As we continue in the power of Christ alone.

But you brothers, be not weary in well doing. 2 Thess 3:13  KJV. And as for you, brothers, never tire of doing what is right. 2 Thess 3:13. NIV

   The Husbandman

Religion WHEN advancd in pow'r,

Will make you HUSBAND every hour.

'Twill make MEN strive with all their might,

And therein FIND a sweet delight.

If there were NOUGHT besides that pay

Christ gives TO cheer us in our way;

Should we not DO the best we can?

For there's NO such reward from man.

Shall others WORK, and not regard

Their strength TO get a small reward?

Whilst we TURN slugs, and loiter thus?

O that THEIR zeal might quicken us.

Why are our HANDS, and feet so slow,

When we UNTO our business go?

How can we THEN Christ's pay expect,

And yet the CHRISTIANS work reject,

If this, then ALSO that embrace 

Them both; IF not, we both disgrace.

Some if THEY could these two divide,

'Twould PLEASE them well, with Christ to side

But if they MAY not, then it were 

As good CEASE pleading, they'll not hear:

Rouse up  FROM sloth, my soul betake

Thee to thy WORK, no cavils make.

O strive, AND try Saints say that even,

The pain they TAKE, hath much of heaven.

But yet THEIR best wine's kept till last,

Their rest, and EASE comes all so fast.

          John Flavel

Now read the capitalized words in each line down the page for a 'secret' message in timely rhyme. 

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The Mayor of Toronto penned a scholarly work on the fascinating subject of church finance. Former Mayor, that is, and one of the best treatments on the subject, I might add. 

Beaty is obviously a man of advanced learning and also held a seat in the Canadian Parliament.

This book would be better titled: Not Paying the Pastor. Therefore some readers will not care for it. But can they refute it?

Here's the point: The harvest is still great. And all power in heaven and in earth is Christ's. We must employ every kind of church in the days to come.

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    Hey there readers,

Here is an old letter which turned up in an old box. It hasn't seen the light of day in more than 20 years. I just took it from the envelope...

We must be very careful in making predictions about the future. Things do not always go the way we suspect. They usually do not, in fact. What is certain is that bad news will outsell good news.

On the other hand, a large amount of space in the Scriptures is devoted to the subject of prophecy and to future events. Some estimate the prophetic content as high as 20%.

Gene Edwards was not alone in his faulty pre-2000 speculations. Others wrote similar books decades before him.

He considers himself the founder of the organic church movement, by the way. He has written several books on the subject. 

So, we can learn from his mistakes. We all make them.

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Hey friend, the site Email app and the Messenger app essentially do the same things. Both are not needed and having both adds to the complexity of the site.

Just use the Messenger app as it has been greatly improved. It even does video chat. 

If anyone needs to recover their old site emails, just let me know and I will make it possible for you to recover them.

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Hey, where is the email button for messages? I am logged in but still can't find it. Thanks.

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Are you sure? I have read many years that there is nothing whatsoever to do. Simply "be". Or just "be the church".  :)

Such sentiments are well intended and like many errors they have an element of truth. Yes, the church is the people - not the building. And yes, we can only obey God by his strength and Spirit in us.

Let's prove all things and whatsoever we DO - DO all to the glory of the Lamb.

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Most of us receive more notifications than we want or need. To cancel email notifications just tap the UNSUBSCRIBE button at the bottom of any email from house church network.

We desire to be a blessing to others, not a nuisance. 

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Thanks Cyndi, for adding these important comments. Thank God we do have the Scriptures to test all teachings.

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This is good. These are aspects of Paul's writings that many today ignore. They claim that God does it all, and there is nothing left for us to do. I for one admit that warfare is frightening, but at the same time God is with us, in us and for us, giving us the victory as we participate with Him!

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The apostle Paul drew three comparisons to illustrate what it is like to live as a believer. He likened himself to a fighter, a runner, and a soldier.

First, he said he was like a fighter: “I have fought the good fight . . . ” (2 Timothy 4:7). The idea Paul was conveying was a potential fight to the death. This reminds us that the Christian life is a conflict. Once you enter into this new relationship with God, you discover that your adversary, the devil, will try to undermine you. It is a spiritual battle, and thus we need to use spiritual weapons.

Paul also compared himself to a runner. He said, “I have finished the race . . . ” (2 Timothy 4:7). The word he used for “race” described an event with obstacles in it, more like getting through an obstacle course. There were numerous hurdles and obstacles that Paul had to deal with in his life, and Paul was saying he had completed that race.

Finally, Paul said he was a soldier: “I have remained faithful” (2 Timothy 4:7). In the original language, this statement carries the meaning of having guarded the faith as an armed soldier would guard his post against enemy attack. Paul was saying that he had not strayed from the truth of God’s Word, that he lived it out.

So have you been winning or losing in the struggle against the adversary and personal sin? Have you kept pace in the race of life, or have you slowed down? Have you guarded and kept your faith in the way that you live and tell others.

Let’s make it our aim to be able to say, “I have fought the good fight, I have finished the race, and I have remained faithful.”

Greg Laurie, Finishing Well

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As always, we do not make blanket endorsements of anyone or for any organization. Nor for any "ism". 

Let's just follow Jesus Christ and his word and leave it to others to define themselves by extra-biblical terminology. Because for every "ism" there are many confusing variants.

So your milage may vary. That said, many of these free books look very worthwhile to me. You?

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Jesse, something I might have failed to mention in the original article is the testing process. Paul wrote in an letter in the bible that we should test all things. My personal journey of questioning and testing the bible, book by book started in my childhood.

Much of why I believe what I believe is from trial and error. When I ignored what God was teaching me through the bible I learned much from each experience. Later, through dialog with others as you have mentioned I continued in the process.

At 70 years of age I am now to the point of allowing the words of the bible to test me.

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David, thanks for adding these thoughts. I appreciate your willingness to respect the convictions of others. I would like to add that I did not come by my beliefs about the bible without years of careful and thoughtful consideration. However it was the work of God in my heart that was the most convincing.

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Jesse, I understand your point about people reacting to the misuse of scripture. I however think the best reaction is the correct use of scripture. I also agree with the importance of understanding the process of canonization. Sadly, not many people want to invest the time.

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This post is two years old, but I felt the need to comment for others who might read. Sir Isaac Newtown said, "Truth is ever to be found in simplicity, not in the multiplicity and confusion of things." The bible has been found to be without error(with miniscule grammatical errors that do not change the overall message) over the last two thousand years. There are over 5000 original Greek manuscripts. The Word is TRUTH. The Bible is God's Word. The Word or Logos  refers to the bridge between the transcendent and material universe.  Why this confusion? Satan is the author of confusion. The only thing that needs to be questioned is denominational doctrine--this needs to be held up against the light of Scripture.

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by Iain Murray

I have often put off taking up this subject and I do so now with considerable hesitation. (footnotes 1,2) The reason why I have this feeling is that I would much prefer to speak on a subject upon which I have more confidence and certainty. The truth is that I once had a good deal of confidence about it but that ended some twenty years ago when, on a summer's day in St Andrews, I purchased a second-hand book entitled, The Theory of Ruling Eldership, by Peter Colin Campbell, Principal of the University of Aberdeen.(3)The reading of that book gave me a considerable shock. While it did not lead me to exchange one view for another, it created in me an uncertainty and convinced me that my former confidence had been largely the result of ignorance. As someone has said: 'The wider the reading, the greater will be the modesty'. Although I have thought and read much on the subject since that time I am still uncertain.

Hearing such introductory words you might ask, 'Why take up the subject at all unless one can be positive and definite about it? Why not leave the eldership question alone and put the time we have to better use?' That is a reasonable question. Let me try to answer it.

The Christian Ministry In Question

There are factors in the current situation which make our subject compelling. We cannot keep putting it off.

1. We who gather here are all deeply concerned for the continuance and the strengthening of the Christian ministry. We believe that in the structure of the church the office of the preacher is of vital importance and our prayer for the future is that God will raise up and appoint many men to that office.

Our attitude in this regard goes back a long way. Calvin, for instance, says of gospel ministers: 'Whoever, therefore, either trying to abolish this order of which we speak and this kind of government, or discounts it as not necessary, is striving for the undoing or rather the ruin and destruction of the church'. (4)

I need hardly remind you that today the traditional view of the minister of the Word is questioned very widely among professing evangelicals. All round the world a chorus of voices have repeated the words of such authors as Paul Benjamin who writes:

The idea of every Christian being a minister of Christ is finally dawning upon the American mind. During a long night, growth has been thwarted by the 'one minister one congregation' concept of ministry. (5)

Or, to give you another example, in a work entitled Biblical Eldership, An Urgent Call to Restore Biblical Church Leadership, Alexander Strauch, says:

The one-man-professional-ministry concept is totally unsuited for the body of Christ. Outwardly it may be successful, but in reality it is harmful to the sanctification of the members of Christ's body. (6)

Now taken on their own, such quotations might be given a perfectly justifiable sense and it would be folly for us to believe that we are called to defend everything connected with traditional views of the Christian ministry. We agree that 'ministries' exercised by all Christians represent a New Testament picture of church life. J. C. Ryle asserted that as strongly as anyone has ever done over a hundred years ago, (7) and C. H. Spurgeon could say, 'Ministers do not pretend to be a class of sacred beings, like the Brahmins of India.' (8) But these modern quotations come in a context which is far more original and which leaves little need for Christian ministers at all. It is the office of the preacher which is discounted today, sometimes even condemned as 'clericalism', and this attitude is frequently defended by what are claimed to be more scriptural assertions about the 'eldership'. In some words of testimony which could have been written by many contemporary ministers, Mark R. Brown of the Orthodox Presbyterian Church, has said this of opposition which he once encountered from elders in his congregation:

To recognize distinctions in calling and functions between the pastor and other elders was seen by them as evidence of clericalism, hierarchy, and arrogance. For example, the dissident elders were offended when I would encourage young men to consider a call to the ministry. To them this was a put down. They felt I was falsely assuming ministerial prerogatives to myself. They wanted a rotating pulpit, the right to baptize and administer communion on the basis of their calling as elders.'

So the eldership issue has become increasingly relevant and if we offer no answers to the claims now commonly heard there is real danger that the work traditionally done by men called to a full-time preaching ministry will be further undermined. (9)

2. As a second reason for taking up the subject let me suggest that a measure of uncertainty, such as I have personally experienced, may not be altogether a bad thing. It is written of Dr. George Matheson, the last-century Scottish preacher and hymn-writer, that when he was young, 'He was confident that he could establish the intellectual coherence of religious and scientific truth . . . But as time went on he seemed to lose his confidence' (10) The consequence, we trust, was that the author of 'O Love that wilt not let me go' became a humbler Christian. Similarly, some of us were once too ready to think that we could resolve all questions of church order and government. Uncertainty, with humility of mind, is better for us than a wrong dogmatism. For anyone to be hesitant when Scripture is definite is a sin. But we have also to recognize the danger that we may be definite when Scripture itself allows a greater latitude of opinion or practice than we are prepared to do.

Turning then directly to our subject, I want first to state three different understandings of New Testament eldership. I take these three because they are the only views known to me which can make any real claim to be biblical.

View 1: One Office, two Functions

This is the view which believes the New Testament office of elder (Gk: presbuteros) is one office, but that it contains within it two distinct groups or classes of men: those in one group both preach and participate in the government and oversight of the people; those in the other only rule and govern. In rank and authority the two groups are equal, they differ only in function: some are teaching elders (traditionally called 'ministers'), while the remainder (often simply called 'elders') are only sharers in the government of the church.

View 2: Two Separate Offices

This second view argues that there is not one office, sub-divided as above, but rather two distinct offices. The first office is that of the eldership proper, and in this office all elders are preachers and pastors. According to this position, the traditional Protestant minister, and he only, does the work of the New Testament elder for, it is claimed, in strict New Testament usage no one should be designated an elder/presbyter who is not called to preach. So the call to the eldership is identical with the call to the ministry

But this second understanding, held by many Presbyterians, allows for a second office, made up of men who happen to be called 'elders' although the actual term does not belong to them in the usage of the New Testament churches. How then is the work of such men in the government of the church to be justified if the New Testament title does nor strictly belong to them? The divines of the Westminster Assembly answer that question in these words:

As there were in the Jewish church elders of the people joined with the priests and Levites in the government of the church; so Christ, who hath instituted government, and governors ecclesiastical in the church, hath furnished some in his church, beside the minister of the word, with gifts for government, and with commission to execute the same when called thereunto, who are to join with the minister in the government of the church. Which officers reformed churches commonly call Elders. (11)

So this view accepts two groups of men called to the spiritual oversight of the church but it says they do not hold the same office. Hence the refusal of the Westminster divines to allow any of the proof-texts relating to elders/presbyters to be used to support the work of those whom they preferred to call, 'other church governors'. The difference here is more than a difference in function. The presbyters/elders are the principal leaders of the church in spiritual things. Others may assist them in the oversight and the title 'elder' is allowed to them chiefly on the grounds of sixteenth-century usage.(12)

According to this view Presbyterians have accepted the use of the term 'elder' for non-ministers, while believing that if we are to be strictly governed by the New Testament 'there is no evidence that can stand up to objective criticism for the title "elder" used in our way.' (13)

View 3: One Office, One Function

This view agrees with the first in arguing that there is only one office, but it disagrees that functions are to be distinguished and separated. We should not, its upholders say, speak of 'teaching elders' and 'ruling elders', because, it is argued, all elders have the same basic duties: all may teach and preach. If they do not do so regularly in the congregation it is by their voluntary choice; they choose to give way to others who are better trained or who have more popular gifts. Thomas Witherow held this view and drew the conclusion: 'So a member of the eldership ought not to have his tongue tied by legislation. It should be left to his own good sense when to speak and when to be silent. Even if he were sometimes to speak weakly and out of season, greater calamities might happen'.(14)

It would appear that this third view is akin to that held by the Christian Brethren. There may be many teachers and preachers in one church and it can be left to local circumstances to determine how the work is divided among them.

No Consensus

These, then, are the three best-known views. As we review them, there is one thing which can be said with certainty, we will never resolve which is right simply by reading the theological authorities and taking our side with the majority or the most orthodox. The truth is that some of the best-known names in the reformed churches to go no further will be found on opposing sides. There is no consensus. Even William Cunningham, commonly regarded as one of the clearest champions of 'divine right' Presbyterianism, could write to Charles Hodge:

I have never been able to make up my mind fully as to the precise grounds on which the office and functions of the ruling elder ought to be maintained and defended. For some time before I went to America I had come to lean pretty strongly to the view that all ecclesiastical office-bearers were presbyters, and that there were sufficiently clear indications in Scripture that there were two distinct classes of those presbyrers, viz, ministers and ruling elders; though not insensible to the difficulty attaching to this theory from the consideration that it fairly implies that wherever presbyters or bishops are spoken of in Scripture ruling elders are included. I have been a good deal shaken in my attachment to this theory by the views I have heard from you, but I have not yet been able to abandon it entirely. (15)

If men of Cunningham's calibre were uncertain, it can surely only mean that each of the three views I have outlined has its own point of weakness. Let us go over them again to note where the weaknesses lie.

Lack of Scriptural Evidence

In the case of the first, the view which says that the one office of the eldership is made up of two distinct groups of men, its most serious weakness lies in its ability to offer only one proof-text to support a division in function. The text is 1 Timothy 5:17, 'Let the elders that rule well be counted worthy of double honour, especially they who labour in the word and doctrine'. The NIV translation of that verse reads: 'The elders who direct the affairs of the church well are worthy of double honour, especially those whose work is preaching and teaching.'

According to the NIV the meaning is plain. All elders 'direct the affairs of the church', or rule, but of that number it is only some 'whose work is preaching'. But the original is by no means so clear and the NIV translators are doing here what they appear to do too often, namely, interpret rather than translate. The words 'whose work' does not accord with the original. Other versions stay close to the KJV's 'especially they who labour in the word and doctrine'. On the latter wording, which stays closer to the original, the meaning can well be, 'All elders who do well as leaders are worthy of double honour, especially those who are painstaking in preaching, who "toil" (kopiao) unweariedly "in the word and in teaching".' On this understanding, the difference is not between elders who only rule and others who preach, it simply urges special commendation and support for those who are outstanding in their efforts in the preacher's calling. The text gives no leave to some elders not to preach at all.

The fact is that there is no unanimity among the exegetes on 1 Timothy 5:17 and it has to be hazardous to use it as a proof-text for divided functions in the absence of supporting evidence. The NIV translation represents the same minority view that was rejected by the Westminster Assembly. In this connection it is noteworthy that some who once claimed 1 Timothy 5:17 as a proof text for two classes of elder came to abandon this opinion. Thomas Witherow, for instance, wrote an ardent little defence of divine-right Presbyterianism in 1856 entitled, The Apostolic Church, Which Is It?. In that book he said:

Any unprejudiced person may see from 1 Timothy 5:17, that the office of the eldership divided itself into two great departments of duty in primitive times, even as at the present. (16)

But in 1873, the same, shall we say wiser, Thomas Witherow, wrote of the 'distinction between two classes of elder':

To us it seems clear that the whole theory rests on a misconception of the force of the passage, 1 Timothy 5:17, and therefore cannot be any real justification for the difference that actually exists between the ruling elder and the minister. (17)

The case that 1 Timothy 5:17 does not speak of two classes of elders would appear to be strengthened by what we read in chapter 3 of the same epistle. There is no hint at all in the third chapter that Paul envisages two classes of elder, on the contrary, aptness or ability to teach (1 Tim. 3:2) is set out as a qualification for the office. The inference has to be that men with no such ability are not to be made elders at all.

The great weakness, then, of this first view is that the one text which it offers for proof of a distinction between teaching and ruling is far from being a certain support for that interpretation, while not only 1 Timothy 3 but all the other Pauline references to the work of elders join teaching with ruling. The elders at Ephesus are to counter the threat of 'grievous wolves' by feeding the church of God with the truth (Acts 20:28). Elders in Crete are to 'hold fast the faithful word' and 'be able by sound doctrine both to exhort and to convince the gainsayers' (Titus 1:9). In deciding on the meaning of 'ruling' we need to beware that we do not carry the ideas of modern parlance into the New Testament. The New Testament elder rules not by making his decisions for others but rather by teaching Christians from Scripture how they should act. Teaching is therefore a part of ruling and Scripture itself is the only authoritative instrument of government.

My personal opinion is that the one office, two classes, theory of eldership has often found acceptance among us because we assumed it was the position biblically established by the Westminster Assembly. The truth is that the assumption is wrong. As I have said, the documents coming from the Assembly support not this first view but the second to which we must now turn.

What Happens to Plurality and to Scriptural Warrant?

What is the weakness of the second theory the theory which justifies not one office, subdivided, but two distinct offices: one, that of presbyters, and the second of 'church governors' (mistakenly called 'elders)?

1. One weakness is that if the apostolic churches knew no elders other than preachers then there would appear to be a strangely large number of preachers in New Testament congregations. Certainly there is no church of which we read that it only had one presbyter/elder. As Witherow points out, plurality in the eldership 'shews itself often undesignedly in the apostolic admonitions "Remember them which have the rule over you" "Obey them that have the rule over you" "Salute all them that have rule over you" "Know them which labour among you and are over you in the Lord". (18)

In reply to this it may be said that those who regard all New Testament elders as preachers (as those who hold the first view) have no objection, in principle, to more than one preacher. Calvin attributed to the 'ignorant' and the 'godless', a remark that three preachers were enough for Geneva. (19) Two preachers in a congregation were to be found in cities in Puritan times, and William Guthrie believed that it was simply 'want of maintainance' which prevented that practice from being more common. (20) Whether two preachers can be taken as the equivalent of the plurality to be found in New Testament churches remains, however, open to question. Yet it has also to be borne in mind that 'the church' in such places as Ephesus (where we read of a plurality of elders) was not necessarily comprised only of one congregation, any more than the congregation at St. Peter's, Geneva, comprised all the churches of that city.

In passing it is interesting to note how John Glass, the eighteenth century Scottish preacher and theologian, understood the plurality of elders who were all (in his view) preachers in the New Testament churches. Teaching, he says, has several parts and no one teacher 'can excel in every part'. Some can best instruct the mind. Others with a greater gift in exhortation can deal better with the wills and affections of their hearers. The 'rule well' of I Timothy 5:17 he takes to be a reference to excelling in the application of the Word to the lives of the people. So preaching, Glass argues, has three necessary parts instruction, exhortation and ruling: 'Growing in knowledge, without the other two, would make monstrous Christians.' (21)

2. A second weakness in the second view is perhaps more serious. This view accepts that in the New Testament there were men who assisted in rule and government yet were not presbyters. The justification for such non-presbyter 'rulers' was found (as we have noted in the case of the Westminster divines) in Romans 12:8, where he says, 'he that ruleth with diligence'. But Romans 12:8 and the parallel reference to the gift of 'governments' in 1 Corinthians 12:28, scarcely demonstrates the existence of an office distinct from the eldership. The silence of the New Testament in this respect surely constitutes a problem and it was this which led the well-known opponent of this second view, James Henley Thornwell, to charge that if the existence of the non-preaching ruler was justified on such a flimsy basis, then Presbyterianism was guilty of accepting an office which had no clear New Testament authority: 'To say that a Ruling Elder [in Presbyterian churches] is not entitled to the appellation of Presbyter . . . is just to say that the fundamental principle of our polity is a human institution.' (22)

Furthermore, it may be asked, if there were in the apostolic age a class of men who functioned as 'rulers', alongside elders, how is it that we hear nothing of any such class existing in the immediate post-apostolic age? We know of 'presbyters' and 'deacons' in the second century, and we know that the rank of 'bishop' early became separate from that of presbyter as an hierarchical structure had its unhappy beginnings, but no records show the existence of any other office-bearers.

What appears to have happened at the time of the Reformation was that leaders in the reformed churches, conscious of the evils of the clerical ambition and domination which had long existed, were convinced that spiritual men who were not ministers would be involved in the oversight and discipline of the churches. They saw the need for other helpers; they noted the place which the Old Testament Church gave to representatives of the people; and they considered that in the New Testament gifts of rule were not necessarily the possession of presbyters alone. Our of such general considerations, and conscious that without such 'lay' leaders the churches would be threatened by prelacy on the one hand, or by the anarchy of popular democracy on the other, they encouraged the creation of these 'other church-governors', who, in distinction from ministers/presbyters, they began to call 'elders'. Expressing this view of the origin of 'elders' in the churches of the Reformation, G. D. Henderson writes: 'The demand for Elders sprang from the necessities of discipline, and Scripture foundation was then discovered for the office.' (23)

In line with this thinking, Cotton Mather, the New England Puritan leader, argued that the most conclusive argument for ruling elders was their usefulness. 'There are some', he wrote, 'who cannot see any such officer as what we call a ruling elder directed and appointed in the word of God'. But whatever theoretical arguments might be raised in objection to 'eldership', he concluded: 'I think none can be made against the usefulness of such a thing. Truly, for my part, if the fifth chapter of the first epistle to Timothy would not bear me out, when conscience, both of my duty and my weakness, made me desire such assistance, I would see whether the first chapter of Deuteronomy would not'. (24)

I have digressed somewhat from the main theme. To repeat, the second theory of the eldership maintains preacher and elder are one in the New Testament, but that spiritual assistants who are not strictly elders at all may be justified on general grounds both by Scripture and by expediency. This was the position argued in the nineteenth century by Charles Hodge. (25)

A Team of Preachers?

Let us turn, then, to think of the principal weakness to be urged against the third view. As already said, this view says that ability to teach is a qualification for all elders. It disagrees with the first view by arguing that no elders should be excluded, in principle, from the pulpit; and it disagrees with the second view in denying the lawfulness of any spiritual assistants who are not elders in the New Testament sense of the word. Each church is to have a plurality of elders who are all authorised to preach, and who actually takes the main part of the work is to be determined by local circumstances. Upholding this view, Witherow writes:

Nothing is more natural than that each elder should follow his bent, and do most frequently the work that he could do best. Common sense would teach them that this is the way in which the church is most likely to profit.

There is not now the same necessity for ordinary elders to preach, because each congregation now commands the service of a trained elder, who usually can from his training preach better and with more acceptance . . . The elder is in everything, except in training and the consequences of training, the very same as a minister. The one thing that makes it proper for a minister rather than an elder to preach and to administer the sacraments, is, that owing to his education and professional studies, he is better able to make these ordinances edifying to the congregation. (26)

What is the weakness here? It is surely that because Witherow does not want a multiplicity of preachers in every congregation he draws this strange distinction between the 'ordinary elder' and the professionally trained preacher. But does the call to the public ministry of the Word really depend on educational training? Does it not rather depend essentially on a divine call? This call, in Thornwell's words, 'must impart a peculiar fitness, an unction of the Holy Ghost, which alone can adequately qualify for the duties of the office . . . The characteristic qualification for the ministry, the unction from on high, is the immediate gift of the Holy Ghost, and cannot be imparted by any agency of man. Human learning is necessary the more, the better; but human learning cannot, of itself, make a preacher. (27)

Witherow's view entails the view that while Christ raises up and sends preachers, and that all elders are officially preachers, nevertheless there may be some elders who rarely, if ever, preach at all. The commendation given to those who 'labour in the word and doctrine' can never be theirs.

But supposing we forget Witherow and the language of Victorian Presbyterianism, does any weakness remain if we state this third theory simply as it is held by the Brethren, namely, all elders should share in the preaching? I believe there is indeed a serious weakness:

1. According to 1 Timothy 5:17 those who excel in teaching and preaching are especially worthy of 'double honour'. Few exegetes doubt that the 'honour' includes financial support, maintenance in temporal things. The very next verse says, 'The labourer is worthy of his reward,' and other scriptures say, 'the Lord ordained that they which preach the gospel should live of the gospel' (1 Cor. 9:14. See also Gal. 6:6). Now if a congregation were to treat equally a whole team of preachers how could they possibly fulfil this obligation? Is it better to have a whole group of preachers, none of whom is adequately supported by the church, if supported at all, or to have one or two preachers who can give themselves wholly to the work of the gospel because their temporal needs are provided for?

It is not required of the pastor, says Owen, 'only that he preach now and then at his leisure, but that he lay aside all other employments, though lawful, all other duties in the church, as unto such a constant attention on them as would divert him from this work, that he give himself unto it, that he be in these things labouring to the utmost of his ability.' (28) How can such an ideal be fulfilled other than by the tradition which has been most common in the Protestant churches?

2. The testimony of church history is against the theory that a team of men, all of equal rank, can work harmoniously together, without an appointed leader. Theoretically it may be argued that a group of Christian preachers should be able to settle among themselves who preaches, and how often, but 'the best of men are men at best' and this theory has never worked long in practice. It seems to be a mistaken view of the New Testament which supposes the leadership of one individual in a congregation is unlawful. Calvin did not think so. Commenting on the reference to 'bishops and deacons' in Philippians 1:1, he says:

I acknowledge, indeed, that, as the minds and manners of men are, there cannot be order maintained among ministers of the word, without one presiding over others. I speak of particular bodies [i.e., congregations], not of whole provinces, much less of the whole world. (29)

Similarly John Owen writes of the New Testament situation:

It is evident that in all their assemblies they had one who did preside in the manner before described; which seems, among the apostles, to have been the prerogative of Peter . . . it is certain that the order very early observed in the church was one pastor. (30)

Owen did not regard the 'one pastor' as necessarily unscriptural. (31) He conceded that 'in each particular church there may be many pastors with an equality of power, if the edification of the church do require it,' but added the significant caution, 'the absolute equality of many pastors in one and the same church is liable unto many inconveniences if not diligently watched against. (32) He believed in 'the necessity of precedence for the observation of order. (33)

Relevant at this point is the question why 'the ruling elder' disappeared in all the churches of the Puritan tradition in England and New England except among the Presbyterians. The Puritans who were Congregationalists were, initially, as committed to a ruling eldership as the Presbyterians, yet by the end of the seventeenth century they had nearly all given it up and entrusted the major spiritual control to one pastor assisted by deacons. (34) Different reasons probably entered into this change but one reason was that an equality of authority in the leadership of congregations had not proved conducive to peace. Cotton Mather believed 'the inconveniences whereunto many churches have been plunged by elders not of such a number or not of such a wisdom as were desirable, have much increased a prejudice against the office. (35)

At times independent churches have attempted to restore eldership as happened in the congregations gathered around the Haldane brothers in Scotland at the beginning of the nineteenth century. James Haldane, pastor of the Edinburgh Tabernacle, argued in 1805 that 'the elders are all equal in office, but an equality of gifts among them is not to be expected. Where the elders and the church are of a proper temper, there will be no disputing on this head.' Yet disputes there evidently were. It was not necessary, James Haldane believed, that several elders 'should, in their turn, conduct the public service'. Where that system had been allowed to operate there had been 'great injury to the power of religion, even in the members of the church.' (36) He was speaking from unhappy experience and observation. (37) The attempt to secure a plurality of elders at Haldane's Tabernacle 'did not succeed' and Robert Haldane was to say in 1821 that 'the system did not work.' (38)

After the seventeenth century, however, Congregationalism, in general, moved decisively away from the idea of two classes of elders and came to hold only the offices of pastor and deacon. The reason why Presbyterianism did not make the same change was that it had evolved a system of checks and balances which made it impossible for the eldership in any congregation to act over the head of the minister. In theory the minister and elder might be considered to occupy the same office, in practice the minister, as the permanent member of the local presbytery, had very distinct privileges.

In the last thirty years, as is well known, a number of Calvinistic independent and Baptist congregations have admired Presbyterian order and re-introduced elders. For a number of churches this change may have proved beneficial but there has also been cause for misgivings and the old doubt has re-surfaced whether an order can work which gives elders an equality with pastors, and leaves pastors without the greater security built into the Presbyterian system. In saying this I am nor arguing here for Presbyterianism but simply making an observation.

Apart from the danger of disharmony, there is another lesson from history which I believe can be urged against the third view It is that congregations do not want a team of preachers. They have found great edification in the ministry of one or two pastors. Even assemblies of Brethren have found reason to move away from their original position. The consecutive teaching of a man, anointed of God and enabled to give himself wholly to the needs of a congregation, is commonly throughout Christian history vastly preferable to a number of preachers whose time for gospel ministry is necessarily far more limited. It is all very well for modern innovators to decry the 'one-man ministry' as they do but let any congregation which has known the blessing of God be asked whether they would have preferred their pastor to share the pulpit constantly with a number of others and the answer would not be in doubt.

It is far too simple to claim, as the modern upholders of 'body ministry' have done, that the move away from regular, appointed ministers of the Word is the result of a new spiritual understanding and liberty. The claim might not be made with such confidence if its promoters knew a little more church history. As long ago as 1862, Spurgeon said, 'The outcry against the "one man ministry" cometh not of God, but of proud self-conceit, of men who are not content to learn although they have no power to teach. (39)

General Observations

1. We have covered enough ground to establish at least one thing clearly: the question of the eldership is by no means straightforward. The subject has been handled by a number of the most eminent teachers of the Church including Calvin, Owen, Thornwell, Hodge to name a few and none is decisive in establishing a clear scriptural case. They are all unconvincing at certain points and sometimes they are inconsistent in the very views they advance. Witherow goes so far as making the following admission:

The apostolic eldership is thus the difficulty of every existing system of church government. The difficulty of prelacy is, that every one of these primitive elders in the congregation was a bishop. The difficulty of Independency is, that there was a plurality of pastors in every church. The difficulty of Presbytery is, that the majority of elders are forbidden to do what it is admitted the minister or first elder has a perfect right to do in the congregation, and what was in the apostolic age competent to every elder. (40)

As we have seen, Witherow offered yet another solution to put the situation right. But is it not more important that we should deduce from this absence of certainty that the New Testament itself contains obscurities which no one can readily resolve? Even the number of permanent officers in the apostolic churches has never been unanimously agreed. Two we are certain about, presbyters and deacons. Calvin, however, believed that there were four: pastor, doctor, elder and deacon. The Westminster divines agreed, though substituting 'other church-governors' for 'elders'! The very nature of 'office' remains a subject of discussion.

Then there is ambiguity in the very usage of the word 'presbyter' in the New Testament. Sometimes it may simply refer to older, senior men, not to office-bearers at all. Sometimes, of course, the reference is to office-bearers in the synagogue. Some writers make much of the claim that the Christian elder is taken over from the Jewish elder and that his primary role was ruling. Therefore, they argue, that the first eldership in the church at Jerusalem (Acts 11:30) constituted a group of rulers, with the actual teaching being done by the apostles, prophets and teachers endowed with special gifts.

That may possibly be true of the Jerusalem eldership at the early date of Acts 11 but, even if it was so, it does not mean that it should be regarded as the permanent pattern. There is transition, change and development within the New Testament itself. Just what that change was is another thing not entirely clear. We can see that the diaconate of Acts 6 is not identical with the later diaconate of 1 Timothy 3. Similarly, supposing elders were not, at first, preachers and teachers, it is quite understandable that a change was required by the time the Pastoral Epistles were written. On this point E. A. Litton wrote:

The abundant manifestations of the Spirit, which distinguished the infancy of the Church, were not meant to be perpetual: they were bestowed for a temporary purpose . . . In due time, ordinary endowments, moral and intellectual, which, when sanctified by the Spirit, had from the first found a sphere of exercise in the Church, were entirely to supersede the supernatural gifts which accompanied the Pentecostal effusion: prophecy' and 'speaking with tongues' were to give way to the stated teaching of official persons, and 'wisdom' and 'knowledge' were to be the result, not of the direct agency of the Spirit, but of study and reflection. The transition from the period of immediate spiritual influence, to the normal state into which the Church was to settle, is distinctly marked in St. Paul's pastoral epistles. In these, the extraordinary gifts of the Spirit disappear altogether from view; and the directions given to Timothy in reference to the admitting of persons to the ministry are applicable to every age of the Church. (41)

2. The uncertainties surrounding 'office' in the New Testament lead some to emphasise that what is important, after all, is not the name of an office but the gifts which Christ bestows and which are to be used. The titles we give to men are less significant than the gift. So if men clearly have gifts of leadership and rule, although they are not preachers, does it matter if we call them 'elders'? Most Presbyterian churches have concluded that, in practice at least, it does not matter. Yet the fact is that any serious reader of the New Testament can see that the word 'elder' is the only word which designates the work of gospel ministers and so all modern churches who sanction non-preaching 'elders' leave their pastors open to the charge that they are arrogating to themselves a work which ought to belong to all elders. As Charles Hodge says, 'Much confusion has arisen from the use of the word elder {i.e., in the sense of ruling elder] and presbyter as synonymous. (42)

This confusion would have been avoided if the Westminster Assembly's preference for the term 'Church Governors' had displaced the loose use of the term 'elder'. The main objection to this, as we have noted, is that it would give men a title and position which has no clear existence as an office in the New Testament. Rather than do that, some have argued, it would be better to embrace the functions of our present ruling elders within the diaconate. Thus T F Torrance writes:

It would seem to be the case that our elders now fulfil a ministry which in the New Testament itself is ascribed to deacons. In other words, the best, and indeed the only biblical evidence for the ministry fulfilled by our elders is found in New Testament teaching about deacons, supplemented by what we learn from Early Church documents. Consider, for example, the Epistle to the Philippians 1:1, in which St. Paul mentions only 'bishops and deacons'. Are we to include 'elders' here under 'bishops' or under 'deacons'. That is the issue, and when faced with it, Reformed commentators have regularly included them under 'deacons'. It might be said, then, that what we call 'elders' are really 'elder-deacons'. This falls closely in line with what a great scholar like J. N. D. Kelly has to say about deacons in his commentary, The Pastoral Epistles. (43)

In this connection it can probably be added that, in point of fact, in healthy gospel churches of independent persuasion, the actual work done by deacons in assisting pastors is the equivalent to the work done by elders in Presbyterian congregations. One Presbyterian writer, taking a 'comparative view of English and Scottish dissenters' actually asserts this. Dr. Thomson of Coldstream writes: 'Two sorts of officers are recognized by both: and what are deacons in the one are just elders in the other. Names are nothing.' (44)

3. If the train of thought we have followed is not seriously awry then the difficulties attached to theories of the ruling eldership must raise the larger question whether there is any unvarying, 'divine-right' model of church order, set down for all time in Scripture. Many of the most distinguished of the Puritans believed that there was indeed a definite pattern, and that principle binds us to it, but their failure to be able to clarify or agree on this definite pattern shows that no one had enough light or evidence to convince others. Differences over church order were argued to the point of exhaustion and when it was all done an author such as T. M. Lindsay in his book The Church and the Ministry in the Early Centuries could say, perhaps with some justice, 'The organization of the Primitive Christian Church . . . has no resemblance to any modern ecclesiastical organization, and yet contains within it the roots of all whether congregational, presbyterian (conciliar) or episcopal.' (45)

This issue of one definite scriptural order lies at the heart of the debate which took place between Thornwell and Charles Hodge over ruler elders. Thornwell was shocked that Princeton could defend elders on grounds other than proof-texts to which clear-cut obedience is required: a class of men was being recognized concerning whom the New Testament says nothing about their appointment. Hodge freely admits this:

We maintain that Christ has, in his infinite wisdom, left his Church free to modify her government, in accordance with these general principles, as may best suit her circumstances in ages and nations. (46)

4. It has to be remembered that a great deal of the zeal manifested in the seventeenth century to establish uniformity in church government was driven by the belief that without it churches would be in a state of schism. But if Christ has imposed no one, unvarying form of government, and if schism is not a matter of external conformity, then that belief was a noble mistake. As A. A. Hodge writes:

If the church be an external society, then all deviation from that society is of the nature of schism; but if the Church be in its essence a great spiritual body, constituted by the indwelling of the Holy Ghost through all the ages and nations, uniting all to Christ, and if its organization is only accidental and temporary, and subject to change and variation, then deviation of organization, unless touched by the spirit of schism, is not detrimental to the Church . . . All claims that our Church is the one Church and only Church, are of the essence of schism; all pride and bigotry are of the essence of schism; all want of universal love, all jealousy, and all attempts to take advantage of others in controversy or in Church extension, are of the essence of schism. (47)

This does not mean that matters of church government can be treated as unimportant. But it does warn us that all over-vigorous dogmatism, and all 'ultraism' for one 'orthodox' position on points of order, are more likely to distract churches with controversy than to do lasting good. In the winning of souls to Christ Scripture commends a higher duty to us. The supreme need is to see men and women belonging by faith to Christ himself and thus being united to the church which is 'the heavenly Jerusalem'. Apart from this, as Owen says, 'All contests about church-order . . . are vain, empty, fruitless.' 'If this only true notion of the catholic church were received, as it ought to be, it would cast contempt on all those contests about the church, or churches, which at this day so perplex the world. He who is first instated, by faith on the person and mediation of the Lord Jesus Christ, in this heavenly society, will be guided by the light and privileges of it into such ways of divine worship in churches here below as shall cause him to improve and grow in his interest in that above.' (48)

In different words, James Haldane was to profess similar sentiments in his last illness. 'It was his conviction that the Spirit was given as the Lord saw good to all Churches that it was the preaching of sound doctrine which the Lord blessed, and not particular systems of church-government. "Great good," he said, "was done by itinerating, but we were permitted for a time to attach too much importance to some things connected with Church order; and whether it was that we were nor worthy, or whatever was the cause, our efforts to restore apostolic Churches and primitive Christianity were unsuccessful."' (49)

We should not deduce from this that it is not worth struggling about questions of church order neither Owen nor the Haldanes believed that but our endeavours should ever be moderated by the consciousness that much imperfection and some uncertainties belong to the order of all churches. So Calvin, while preaching on the eldership, could say: 'There is yet a great distance between us, and the order that was practised in the apostles time. And therefore let us pray God to confirm us, that he bring things to a better pass . . . seeing we are not only not in the middest way, but to speak truth have scarce begun.' (50)

It may surely be that one reason why God has permitted difficulties with the subject we have discussed, as with other subjects, is that we might have further cause to learn humility. 'While we wrangle here in the dark,' writes Baxter, 'we are dying and passing to the world that will decide all our controversies; and the safest passage thither is by peaceable holiness'. (51)


1. No one modern form of church government can be said to be prescribed in all its features by 'proof-texts'.

2. If insistence upon precise biblical evidence is believed to be required for true church order, then non-preaching 'elders' cannot form a part of that order.

3. If the two-offices view of the eldership can be defended from general biblical considerations, so also can some other forms of government in which the same functions operate under different names.

4. We have left the New Testament when we show more concern for establishing forms of church government than we do for seeing men and women joined to the church universal and in possession of eternal life



1. The substance of an address given at the 1995 Leicester Ministers' Conference.

2. I did treat the subject from an almost purely historical angle in an article, 'Ruling Elders A Sketch of a Controversy', Banner of Truth (issue 235, April 1983), pp.1-9.

3. The Theory of Ruling Eldership or The Position of the Lay Ruler in the Reformed Churches (W Blackwood: Edinburgh and London, 1866).

4. Institutes of the Christian Religion, Book IV, Ch. III, 2 (F L. Battles, trans., J. T MeNeill, ed., Philadelphia, 1960, vol. 2, p. 1055). The two extremes which Calvin noted on this subject are still with us: 'In our day there has been great controversy over the efficacy of the ministry. Some exaggerate its dignity beyond measure. Others contend that what belongs to the Holy Spirit is wrongly transferred to mortal men.' Ibid., vol. 2, p. 1020.

5. The Equipping Ministry (Standard Publishing: Cincinnati, 1978), pp. 1516.

6. Biblical Eldership (Lewis and Roth: Littleton, Colorado, 1988), p. 16.

7. See The Upper Room, being a few truths for the time (1888, repr. Banner of Truth: London, 1970), pp. 328331.

8. Metropolitan Tabernacle Pulpit, 1890 (repr. Banner of Truth: London, 1970), p. 255.

9. Mark Brown's experience led to his book, Order in the Offices: Essays Defining the Roles of Church Officers (Classic Presbyterian Government Resources: Duncansville, Pa., 1993).

10. W Robertson Nicoll, Princes of the Church (Hodder and Stoughton: London, 1921), p. 189.

11. The Form of Presbyterial Church-Government, appended to most editions of the Westminster Confession. The proof texts given to justify these 'other church governors' are restricted to Romans 12:7 and 1 Corinthians 12:28.

12. There were of course differences among the Puritans on this subject, a minority, whose view was not endorsed at the Westminster Assembly, holding that 'lay elders' shared in the strict N.T. office of the eldership. Richard Baxter writes: 'As far as I can understand, the greater part, if not three for one of the English ministers' opposed that minority view. Five Disputations of Church-Government and Worship, 1659, Preface, p. 4.

13. T F. Torrance, The Eldership in the Reformed Church (Hansel Press: Edinburgh, 1984), p. 8.

14. 'The New Testament Elder' in the British and Foreign Evangelical Review, 1873 (J. Nisbet: Edinburgh, 1873), p. 227.

15. Letter of July 1844 in Life of Charles Hodge (T. Nelson: London, 1881), p. 425.

16. The Apostolic Church, Which Is It? (repr. N. Adshead: Free Presbyterian Publications, 1956), p. 68.

17. British and Foreign Evangelical Review, 1873, p. 216.

18. British and Foreign Evangelical Review, 1873, p. 203.

19. Sermons of Calvin on the Epistle to Timothy and Titus (London: 1579; repr. Banner of Truth: Edinburgh, 1983), p. 512.

20. 'A Treatise of Ruling Elders and Deacons' in Works of W. Guthrie (Glasgow: 1771), p. 329.

21. 'Of the Unity and Distinction of the Elder's Office' in Works of John Glass, vol. 2 (Perth, 1782), p. 226. Glass (16951773) was a man of independent judgment, and his contribution to the much-criticised thinking of his son-in-law, Robert Sandeman, partly explains the oblivion into which his able and stimulating writings have fallen. In criticism of his Presbyterian contemporaries, he says: 'they think they do well when they get one bishop in every congregation, with a company of such elders as can neither teach nor preach, nor administrate baptism and the Lord's supper; and these they call ruling elders.' (Ibid., p. 227).

22. Collected Writings of J. H. Thornwell, vol. 4 (1875; repr. Banner of Truth: Edinburgh 1974), p. 115. See also p. 125: 'Presbyterianism stands or falls with the distinction between Ruling and Teaching Elders'.

23. The Scottish Ruling Elder (James Clarke: London, 1935), p. 19.

24. Cotton Mather, The Great Works of Christ in America (repr. Banner of Truth, Edinburgh, 1979), vol. 2, pp. 239-40. With similar effect, Samuel Miller quotes Dr. John Edwards: 'Truly if there was no such office mentioned in Scripture, we might reasonably wish for such a one, it being so useful and serviceable to the great purposes of religion.' An Essay on the Warrant, Nature and Duties of the Ruling Elder (1832; repr. Presbyterian Heritage Publications: Jackson, 1987), pp.163-4.

25. The Church and Its Polity, Charles Hodge (London, 1879).

26. British and Foreign, 1873, pp. 206, 223-4.

27. 27. The Call of the Minister' in Collected Writings of J. H. Thornwell, vol. 4, pp. 27-28.

28. Works, ed. W. H. Goold, vol. 16, p. 75.

29. Commentaries on Philippians, Colossians and Thessalonians (Calvin Trans. Soc.: Edinburgh, 1851), p. 23.

30. Owen's Works, vol. 16, p. 46.

31. Ibid., p. 141, 'There may be, and oftentimes is, but one teaching elder, pastor, or teacher in a church'.

32. Ibid., p. 105.

33. Ibid., p. 105.

34. See Mather, Great Works, vol. 2, pp. 23940; H. M. Dexter, The Congregationalism of the Last Three Hundred years (Hodder and Stoughton: London, 1879), p. 485.

35. Great Works, vol. 2, p. 239. Samuel Miller says that the mistake in New England was 'to have made the office of Teacher and Ruler, wear an appearance of being rivals for influence and power' (Ruling Elder, p. 161). But the question is whether tension is not inevitable where different office-bearers exercise identical authority in independent churches, particularly if elders exceed pastors in number. In Presbyterian churches, whatever the theoretical reasoning, elders and ministers do not exercise identical authority.

36. A View of Social Worship and Ordinances Observed by the First Christians, Drawn from the Sacred Scriptures Alone, J. A. Haldane (Edinburgh, 1805), pp. 254-8.

37. On this subject see, The Lives of Robert and James Haldane, Alexander Haldane (1852, repr. Banner of Truth, 1990), pp. 356-61. Some of the congregations allowed any man to speak in public worship, 'a system [writes J. Haldane] which appears to me destructive of the pastoral office and of all order in the house of God.'

38. Ibid, p. 379.

39. The Metropolitan Tabernacle Pulpit, vol. 8, 1863, p. 195.

40. British and Foreign, 1873, pp. 212-3.

41. The Church of Christ, In Its Idea, Attributes and Ministry 1851, pp. 174-5.

42. The Church and Its Polity (T. Nelson: London, 1879), p. 265.

43. The Eldership in the Reformed Church, p. 10.

44. Quoted by Ralph Wardlaw, Congregational Independency in Contradistinction to Episcopacy and Presbyterianism: the Church Polity of the N.T. (J. Maclehose: Glasgow 1864), p. 185. Wardlaw points out, with some effect, how the work of the diaconate has been too poorly regarded in many Presbyterian churches.

45. The Church and Ministry in the Early Centuries (Hodder and Stoughton: London. 1910), p. 155.

46. The Church and Its Polity, p. 277. 'Christ has not . . . bound his Church to any one exact model of ecclesiastical discipline' (p. 284).

47. Evangelical Theology (1890, repr. Banner of Truth, 1976), pp. 181-3. If Hodge's understanding is rejected then it has to be explained how Christ's prayer that his people be one has never been fulfilled. From the real unity which does exist among true Christians we ought rather to say that what he prayed for has and is being accomplished.

48. Works, vol. 24 (Exposition of Hebrews, vol. 7), pp. 342, 352. Further on this subject, see D.B. Knox on 'The Church and the Denominations' in Sent by Jesus (Banner of Truth, 1992), pp. 55-65.

49. Robert and James Haldane, p. 583.

50. Sermons on Timothy and Titus (1579, repr. Banner of Truth facsimile, 1983) pp. 508-9.

51. The Cure of Church Divisions, Richard Baxter (1670), p. 256.


Born in England in 1931, Iain Murray studied history and philosophy at the University of Durham and considered becoming an English Presbyterian Church minister. While at the university, though, he read material written by the Puritans and began assisting at St. John’s Free Church in Oxford. While there, he served as the first editor of The Banner of Truth magazine. From 1956-1959, he served as assistant to D. Martyn Lloyd-Jones at Westminster Chapel and, in 1957, he co-founded the Banner of Truth Trust. Iain Murray books include J.C. Ryle: Prepared to Stand Alone, giving Christians the opportunity to discover more about this influential 19th century evangelical author who had been largely forgotten; a two-volume biography titled D. Martyn Lloyd-Jones (with individual volumes also available separately: 1 and 2); Forgotten Spurgeon in which he focuses on clearing up misconceptions about Spurgeon and delineates his spiritual beliefs; and a biography of a remarkable woman, Amy Carmichael.

Australian Christian Life From 1788

D. Martyn Lloyd-Jones: The First Forty Years, 1899-1939

D. Martyn Lloyd-Jones: The Fight of Faith, 1939-1981

The Forgotten Spurgeon

Jonathan Edwards: A New Biography

The Life of Arthur W Pink

The Life of John Murray

The Puritan Hope: Revival and the Interpretation of Prophecy

Revival and Revivalism: The Making and Marring of American Evangelicalism 1750-1858

Spurgeon v. Hyper-Calvinism: The Battle for Gospel Preaching

This article appeared in the Banner of Truth Magazine, Issues 395-396, August-September 1996. Used by permission.

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Added a Group 

We are a network of churches committed to equip and empower people to be disciple makers. Share the good and bad in our lives. Growing together, pray together, and doing life together. Follow Jesus to learn how to obey His Great Commission and make disciples who multiply. We scatter and gather in places all around the San Francisco Bay Area. Join us now and get connected.

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Dan, that is an understatement. Actually, you were the regular painter for the governor's mansion in the capital of Ohio. Wow. 

Do you see someone skilled in their work? They will serve before kings; they will not serve before officials of low rank. Proverbs 22.

Again, I wrote to the effect that I was unaware of any first century Christians going out to plant or start or organize or organize churches. Rather, IMHO, they sought first to preach the good news then to encourage the new converts to meet as the church or, if you will, as a church.

Yes, there is plenty said about planting and watering but it's related to the gospel seed - not to church formations or structures.

Again, I am fascinated that in reading the scriptures, there is _nothing_ about starting churches or planting churches. No one is referred to as a church planter. No one is told to do such. 

This isn't just an insignificant detail or just semantics. The tremendous reality here is that Jesus himself will build his church. No one needs to start one or plant one because its already been done once and for all. He did it and did it right.

We thus read: Acts 8:4 Those who had been scattered preached the word wherever they went.

Acts 11:19 Now those who had been scattered by the persecution in connection with Stephen traveled as far as Phoenicia, Cyprus and Antioch, telling the message only to Jews.

** This is why the Roman Churches, which Paul said he had not yet visited were ALREADY in existence. Attendees at Pentecost just took the message back home. **


1 Cor. 11:17 Now in this that I declare unto you I praise you not, that ye *come together not for the better, but for the worse.

1 Cor. 11:18 For first of all, when ye *come together in the church*, I hear that there be divisions among you; and I partly believe it.

1Cor. 11:20 When ye *come together therefore into one place*, this is not to eat the Lord's supper.

1Cor. 11:33 Wherefore, my brethren, when ye *come together to eat, tarry one for another.

1Cor. 14:23 If therefore the whole church be *come together into one place, and all speak with tongues, and there come in those that are unlearned, or unbelievers, will they not say that ye are mad?

1Cor. 14:26 How is it then, brethren? when ye *come together, every one of you hath a psalm, hath a doctrine, hath a tongue, hath a revelation, hath an interpretation. Let all things be done unto edifying.

(To this list could be added the many texts that speak of gathering together and gathering in Jesus' name and forsaking not the gathering together.)

Furthermore, if we were ordered to "start" churches, surely there would be minimum requirements or specific instructions as to what this would entail. Surely there would be some mention of a "core group" somewhere waiting to attain "real church" status. Most assuredly would someone, somewhere be referred to as a church planter.

Unfortunately, much house church literature is full of "church planting", "church planters" and of outsiders needing to come in to assist... One writer even boasted that the real church planters today were the ones trained by him.  : )

The modern plan for "starting churches" is, I believe, from the same factory which gave us the sacraments, and priestly kinds of church leaders who had the sole right to "adminster" them. When they speak of starting churches what they mean is starting a catholic-type parish where everything will essentially be centered around the pastor, "officers", and the building.

Furthermore. It should also be noted that no one in the Biblical history is ever said to have "joined a church". WOW! This is because membership goes into effect at conversion. 

I realize that this may just sound like technicalities or trivialities but I believe that we often put the cart before the horse in these pursuits. It is a bit like a woman who is in a turmoil about wanting a family but hasn't yet found a husband.

All of us desire the same thing - to see more conversions and to see Christians meeting as the Church. My question is "What does it take and who does it take?"

Sorry, but I cannot see in the scripture that every church had to resemble every other one in every aspect. Consider the synagogue, a prototype of the church. It was the natural outgrowth of the social needs of God's people. It was not commanded but rather organically adopted. Eventually it was endorsed by the Lord and his apostles. Yes or no?

I am in search of the lowest common denominator when it comes to the Kingdom's advancement strategy and meeting the needs of Christians to meet together. To add to God's prescription is to put myself in bondage and become a stumbling block to others.

This plan which I have proposed, of course, does not preclude a specialist or many specialists who could expedite matters either in person or via letters or email. One may construct a house or he may employ professional builders (or both).

Whatever you want to call them - church planters or apostles, etc - there just doesn't seem to be enough of them to go around. But, if one should happen to come along to assist that would be WONDERFUL. 

In summary: 1. Believe on the Lord Jesus Christ. 2. Assemble in His name. 3. Exercise your gifts for the good of others. 4. Proclaim Christ and let this wonderful cycle begin again. 

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Here is a link to Everyday Church, San Francisco Bay Area---website is  for those who want to initiate and facilitate starting a house church.

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Sorry if we didn't see these comments! We are still active as described. You can email for current locations, time, questions, etc.

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We are a house church in far Western Kentucky.   The Lord is moving and giving direction, for which we are so thankful.  Spirit-led worship, prayer, music, fellowship, delving into the Scripture, eating a good meal---these are some of the things that happen on Sundays. We praise the Lord for His goodness!

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A church, we have observed, simply means a gathering, group, or an assembly. A church of Christ, we learn from the Scriptures, consists of believers statedly assembling together to enjoy the benefits of association. These benefits are not limited to any number. Even two can associate together. They can mutually assist, admonish, or reprove each other. When the Lord commands his disciples not to forsake the assembling of themselves together, he requires that they should associate as far as they have opportunity, and no farther. The precept is as binding on two as on two hundred. These can co-operate, and continue stedfastly in the apostles' doctrine, fellowship, breaking of bread and prayers; and the abundance of the one may be a supply for the other's want. It is, I believe, generally admitted, that two or three disciples residing in the same place should meet together, and observe every ordinance, except the Lord's supper.

But we find no limitation as to the number of a church in the Scriptures; nor any thing to countenance the stated association of the disciples in any other form. Besides, what is there peculiar in the ordinance of the Lord's supper, that the churches, while attending to every thing else in their power, should delay the observance of this till they obtain elders to administer it? This idea of administration is very consistent in the church of Rome or of England, where each individual receives the elements from the Priest; but in this country, both in the Establishment and among Independents, each member administers it to his neighbour; that is, puts the bread and the cup into his hand. If the elder administers it to those nearest him, they, in their turn, administer it to him; so that the idea of laying any stress on an administrator is utterly inconsistent, besides leading to the unfounded supposition, that the administrator represents the Lord Jesus Christ - in which case he ought not himself to partake.

The plea for the necessity of an elder or officer being present at the Lord's supper, surely originates in some mistake respecting its nature. It must be supposed that it is similar to the sacrifices under the law, which could only be offered by a Priest, or that it contains a mystery still unexplained; and if transubstantiation be given up, something analogous is substituted in its place. Let the reader compare and consider with attention the passages in which this institution is described, and he will be convinced that this view has no foundation.

No good reason then can be given why two or three believers, who have not an opportunity of meeting with a greater number, should not statedly assemble as a church of Christ, to observe the Lord's supper, as well as to continue in the apostles' doctrine and in prayers. Indeed it is their bounden duty to do so. It certainly cannot be shown that elders or deacons are essential to the existence of a church, while we find the apostles returning to Lystra, Iconium and Antioch, and ordaining elders (i.e. appointing elders or older ones to be the shepherds or pastors) in every church, Acts 14:21,23, which they had previously gathered. Indeed, from the very nature of the case, churches must exist before elders, out of which they arise.

The apprehensions that the consequence of two or three observing the ordinances of Jesus, will be their remaining at home, and not assembling in any considerable number, nearly resemble those of the consequences of eating the Lord's supper without elders, which, it is alleged, sets aside the elder's office. But as long as men regard the authority of Jesus, they will consider themselves bound, after the example of the first churches, to assemble statedly with as many of their brethren as local circumstances might permit. And if ever His will, so plainly signified, loses its effect upon their minds, it is a matter of little consequence whether they have them (i.e. officers) or not. Their eating the Lord's supper at all, must in that case, arise from superstition, and not from Christian principle.

Observations on Various Subjects, J.A. Haldane, published by John Ritchie, 1808. pp. 12 - 15.

James A. Haldane preached to 10,000's in open air meetings even after the General Assembly of Scotland banned such meetings. His excellent biography has been recently republished: The Lives of Robert Haldane and James Haldane, Alexander Haldane, 1852 and in 1990 by the Banner of Truth Trust.

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David, I love this, "Too many Christians seem to be living for the sole purpose of attending another meeting. This is living to eat instead of eating to live. This is buying an automobile in order to drive back and forth to the filling station. "

Also:"So, begin by beginning. Like skating in order to learn to skate. Like riding a bike to learn to ride a bike. Yes, the hardest part of a task is getting started. That is why we must continue to encourage one another as we enter the future by returning to the past. "

I have used a similar analogy for the trade that has provided for my family for 40 years. A man put a paint brush in my and and showed me how to brush back and forth, until I became a painter!

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